Tuesday, April 25, 2017

VIEWS: 210K. Top Ten Posts in April

April 25, 2017—This blog's page views have passed the 210K mark. The monthly count is about 10,000. 

Thank you for reading. 

Here are the top posts during the last month, April 2017.


WW2: Why Wasn't Oxford Bombed? (22K Views, Mar 201...
Jun 8, 2013, 3 comments
OXFORD IN FICTION: Top Six Fictional Colleges (Upd...
Jul 2, 2016
SUMMER EIGHTS: May 19-27, 2017
Jan 31, 2017
R.I.P.: July 11–Oxonian John Brademas, NYU Preside...
Jul 25, 2016
THERESA MAY: Time at Oxford (Updated Oct. 29, 2016...
Jul 27, 2016
BRITISH PMs: Universities Attended
Jul 14, 2016
HEAD OF THE CHARLES: Alumni Tent
Oct 17, 2016
BOAT RACES 2017: Oxford Win Men's, Cambridge Women...
Feb 3, 2017, 1 comment
R.I.P.: Geoffrey Hill, Oxford Poet
Jul 2, 2016
BLOG VIEWS: Sep 10, 2016–140K Views

Sunday, April 23, 2017

WW2: Baedeker Raids Start, Apr 23, 1942

Target Handbook for
 the Baedeker Raids, 1942.
Apr 23, 2017—This day in 1942 Germans began their “Baedeker Raids” on England, bombing several medieval cities. Almost 1,000 English civilians were killed in the bombing attacks.

Unlike the earlier bombings of English cities in 1940-41, which were strategic, to kill civilians and destroy buildings to weaken  the English public's will to fight with Germany, the April-June 1942 bombings of cities were targeted at historic cities. They were a retaliation for the RAF raid on the German port of Lübeck on March 28, when 234 British bombers destroyed 2,000 buildings, killed 312 civilians and left 15,000 Lübeck residents homeless.

In reprisal, the Luftwaffe attacked English cathedral cities. The Germans called their air attacks “Baedeker Raids” for the German publisher of its famed tourist guidebooks. Exeter was the first city to be attacked. Much of the city was damaged and 70 people were killed. Baron Gustav Braun von Sturm of the Luftwaffe said: “’We shall go out and bomb every building in Britain marked with three stars in the Baedeker Guide." The task was given to Luftflotte 3.

Exeter was bombed again twice in the next fortnight. Bath was attacked April 25 and 26, York on April 28 resulting in the destruction of 15th-century Guildhall, and Norwich on April 27 and 29. The RAF then launched a "1000 Bomber" raid on Cologne (Köln). The Luftwaffe responded by targeting Canterbury, which was bombed on May 31, June 2 and June 6. It was reminiscent of Mahatma Gandhi's statement: "An eye for an eye and the whole world is blind."

Despite the tit-for-tat vandalism, Oxford and Cambridge were spared. Oxford is on any three-star list in England. Dr Malcolm Graham, Head of Oxfordshire Studies at Westgate Library, in his book Oxfordshire At War, says that Oxford's escape from Baedeker raids "has never been satisfactorily explained."

Oxford had been one of the cities included in the invasion plans for 1940, which included only central Oxford, not the farther-out Morris Radiators factory on Woodstock Road or the Cowley works. A squadron of Heinkel III bombers was reportedly on its way to obliterate Morris Radiators and probably Cowley on August 30, 1940. It was attacked by RAF fighters and turned back, and no second attempt to bomb Cowley was tried.

See also: Why didn't Hitler bomb Oxford?

Friday, April 21, 2017

NEW YORK: 2017 Boat Race Dinner

The New York City Boat Race Dinner was held for the first time ever at the Cosmopolitan Club on East 66th Street in NYC. The venue and food and wine (esp. the La Petite Perrière Sauvignon Blanc) were highly appreciated.
Below the program are the versions of their speeches by speakers who have sent them to me.

Toast to the Queen

Introduction by John Tepper Marlin (Trinity, Oxford):  Bennett Freeman earned a summa cum laude degree in history from Berkeley, following which he was awarded a Churchill Scholarship from the English-Speaking Union to read history at Balliol.

After Oxford, Bennett worked for Walter Mondale and from there spent eight years as manager of corporate affairs for General Electric. Bill Clinton swept him into the State Department where for four years he worked on human rights, developing a standard for oil and mining industries, and helping to recover millions of dollars for the families of Holocaust victims.

In the next nine years of his life he was senior vice president of Calvert Investments, the largest source of socially responsible mutual funds. Ladies and gentlemen, Bennett Freeman.

Bennett Freeman (Balliol, Oxford): Thanks to my friend John Tepper Marlin for that generous introduction. I’ve known John — and his wife Alice Tepper Marlin — for three decades and have had the privilege of learning from them over the years as a fellow traveler in the world of corporate responsibility and sustainability.

Our remarks this evening can’t be political and mine certainly won’t be.  But I can’t resist noting that the General Election has just been called and wondering if the Prime Minister is taking a risk by asking the British electorate to vote for May… in June.

Our two great ancient universities have instilled in us a respect for tradition as well as for innovation in a time of disruption.  And our time in Great Britain — whether it is our country or not — has instilled in us a respect for the institutions and the individuals that anchor that tradition.

Since Victoria queens and kings have reigned rather than ruled. But this Queen commands our singular respect.  Walter Bagehot famously observed of the monarchy that “Its mystery is its life” and advised that “we must not let in daylight upon magic.”

Yet Queen Elizabeth has let in the daylight to reveal that her magic is not mysterious but almost comprehensible — even though her durability is nothing less than supernatural.


Her decency and probity are the virtues that will sustain us in this era of uncertainty and insecurity. Her wisdom and her discretion give her a quiet authority to which we can all aspire whatever our cause, our work or our walk of life.

Please join me in being upstanding…

The Queen!

Other 2017 Boat Race News . College VIIIs . Summer VIIIs Dinners 2017

ALUMNI RACES: Philadelphia, Apr 2017

REPORT SENT BY JOHN V. QUINN, Oxford & Cambridge Society of Philadelphia.
Vesper Boat Club

It's been over 30 years since The Alumni Boat Races were last held in Philadelphia and that streak almost continued.

Sunday, April 2nd was a gorgeous spring day filled with blue skies, sunshine and a pleasant breeze. Unfortunately, it was not as tranquil and picturesque on the Schuylkill River as high water, floating logs and flood conditions concerned our race officials.  

Christopher Blackwall masterfully rearranged the schedule of races to accommodate Mother Nature.  In the end, prudence dictated that the college boat races be cancelled so we were able to run only 2 of the 5 scheduled races with only the most experienced rowers participating. Our races proved to be a foreshadowing of the results to come in The Boat Races. The Vesper ladies eight (Cambridge designee) crew prevailed and in the men’s race the Oxford Varsity (alumni blue) boat was victorious. 

Here’s how Gardner Cadwalader, the captain of the Cambridge crew, recounted the Varsity Race:
“The Varsity Race became a three boat race between Oxford and Cambridge and the University Barge Club's experienced Master's eight whose race had been cancelled. Floating starts in very fast waters were made for debate at the pub afterwards and the unique start that day guaranteed a few subsequent verbal thrusts and parries among the friends. We shall say no more about that. However, the gentlemen and lady of Cambridge raced brilliantly and did set a new record. The gentleman of Oxford raced much more brilliantly we admit, and came in a solid first place, showing the fine focus and fitness which the other boats have had on days a while ago. The gentlemen of the University Barge Club split their UK loyalties with the diplomacy and hospitality for which UBC is renown by coming in second. This strategy allowed the dark blue guest crew to win first place and the light blue guest crew to set a new record. The record is a first in Oxford Cambridge races by Cambridge having coming in a solid third. Never done before and will never be done again.” 
To our knowledge, we were the only alumni society in the world that held alumni races on the day of The Boat Races – quite a distinction.  I'm pleased to say that two of the founders of that race were instrumental in the races resurgence, namely, Christopher Blackwall (Oxford) and Gardner Cadwalader (Cambridge).  

After the races, everyone retired to Vesper Boat Club for the viewing party of the 2017 Cancer Research UK Boat Races in London. Rich in history and tradition, Vesper is one of the most celebrated boat clubs in the country and the world and was an ideal venue to watch The Boat Races. Attendees watched on two TVs, one in the large bar area and the other on a giant projector screen.  We had a wide variety of alumni and guests, from recent graduates to, let me say, not so recent and many in between with families and lots of children running about.  The capacity crowd enjoyed the festive environment and had a fun time cheering on their favorite blue.

I think I speak for everyone involved when I say the event exceeded our expectations.  We thought we might have 30 to 40 rowers register to row for our races and we actually had over 70.  There was a wide range of ages and sizes with experience ranging from former college rowers to Blues to World Champions to Olympians.  In fact, we had 8 Blues race-5 from Oxford and 3 from Cambridge (see crew listings below).  We were planning on 75 to 100 people attending the viewing party when in fact we sold over 150 tickets and that didn’t include all the children.  It was quite a gathering.

Putting together a regatta, no matter the size, is no small accomplishment and fortunately, we had a very experienced Steering Committee who handled it brilliantly as well as wonderful sponsors.  I want to thank the Committee for its time, effort and dedication, it was a true team effort.  I would like to extend a special thank you to the following individuals (in no particular order): 

Christopher Blackwall (Oxford) and James Hill (Cambridge) who did a superb job of planning, scheduling, logistics, recruiting linesman, referees and coxes, procuring equipment etc.;  the captains, Gardner Cadwalader, 1972 Cambridge Blue, and Mike Wherley, 2008 Oxford Blue, who both did a great job recruiting, organizing and selecting the crews; John-David Franklin (Oxford) who helped form the committee, was involved in many of the facets mentioned above and sponsored us at Vesper Boat Club; Bonnie Mueller (Oxford) Secretary of the Schuylkill Navy whose assistance was invaluable; and to Josh Mooney (Cambridge) whose efforts and guidance were much appreciated.  

Also thanks to:  University Barge Club, Undine  Barge Club, Penn Athletic Club Rowing Association and the University of Pennsylvania.


Other 2017 Boat Race Events in USA and Canada

Sunday, April 9, 2017

ARMS: Lincoln College, Oxford (Updated May 6, 2017)

The three-part Lincoln arms: Bishops
Fleming and Rotherham flank
the arms of the See of Lincoln.
In this version the stags are statant.
Blazon: Tierced per pale (1) Barry of six argent and azure in chief three lozenges gules on the second bar of argent a mullet pierced sable (2) Argent thereon an escutcheon of the arms of the See of Lincoln gules two lions passant guardant in pale or on a chief azure the Blessed Virgin Mary ducally crowned seated on a throne issuant from the chief on her dexter arm the infant Jesus and holding in her sinister hand a scepter or the escutcheon ensigned with a mitre proper azure garnished and stringed or (3) Vert three stags statant argent attired or. This form of the blazon is from the Visitation by the College of Arms of 1574 (Coll. Arms H6.14), discussed below.

Nominees: Each of the three arms combined in this unusually tierced per pale (divided vertically into three parts) shield refers to each of the nominees. (1) The arms of Richard Fleming, Bishop of Lincoln, who founded the College in 1427. (2) The arms of the See of Lincoln (not the Cathedral, as it is listed in some places). The corporate designation of the College is "The Warden or Rector and Scholars of the College of the Blessed Mary and All Saints, Lincoln, in the University of Oxford, commonly called Lincoln College."(3) The arms of Thomas Rotherham (also known as Scot de Rotherham), Bishop of Lincoln, and later Archbishop of York and Lord High Chancellor of England, who re-endowed the College in 1478.

 1. Left, mullet is not pierced. 2. At top,
miter is shown from an angle. 3. Right,
in another version, used by Jesus
 College, the stags are argent, not or.

Authorities: The Lincoln coat of arms was confirmed in 1574 by Richard Lee, Portcullis Pursuivant, on a Visitation to  the University. He caused some subsequent controversy by his "boldness" in aggressively confirming the Lincoln arms (Landon, 1893, p. 156, cited by Clark, 1895, p. 334). The Lincoln College accounts show Lee received 20 shillings for his hard, if arguably misguided, work. The arms were confirmed by three subsequent heraldic visitations. Nonetheless, the arms have been displayed inconsistently. The 1574 blazon shows the stags statant (all four legs on the ground), whereas the Rotherham's authenticated portrait shows them trippant (with one front leg up)It is also the form of the stags in the Jesus College arms, which while not granted by the College of Arms have their own authority by length of use, as discussed in the last section below. Components of the arms may have been changed or invented by the impetuous Lee. In 1920 the College of Arms submitted an authoritative coat of arms, modifying what had been in use, and perhaps this should be definitive. Because the arms are complex, I have followed the example of other blazon sources by using three numerals to divide the Lincoln College blazon and arms. However, using any punctuation in a blazon is incorrect even today, according to Windsor Herald in response to my question in 2015. Mea culpa.

Variations: All three sections of the arms have been queried. For example, (1) The mullet in the original arms of Bishop Fleming is not pierced, but the college arms are; if a mistake was made, in 1574 or earlier, it endures to this day. Brooke-Little (1951), founder of the Heraldry Society and an alumnus of New College, Oxford has commented on the mullet. He served as Richmond Herald in 1967, Norroy and Ulster King of Arms in 1980, and Clarenceux King of Arms in 1995; he died in 2006. In his 1951 articles, he says the mullet is "probably a cadency mark", though he does not think that as of 1574 it indicated a third son. (2) Multiple versions of the Virgin Mary and Babe have emerged, and an incorrect version showing a demi-lady has been common. The field of the center pale has sometimes been shown incorrectly as azure rather than argent. Brooke-Little objects to, but does not dispute, the use of arms of the See of Lincoln, calling it “a practice which could be condemned,” although the practice is also embodied in the Brasenose and Corpus arms. I have my own gripe, that the Virgin and Child charge on the arms in its current compressed size is a difficult, if not impossible, challenge for the viewer to decipher without the information in the blazon. Perhaps the College of Arms could come up with an easier-to-read form of the charge and the College could adopt it. The precedent of Merton, which recently updated its arms, may be helpful in advancing such a project. (3) The arms of Bishop Rotherham have been shown incorrectly as argent instead of or and the stags have sometimes been shown as statant instead of trippant. As mentioned above, the Rotherham arms stags are trippant in the definitive portrait in the Lincoln Hall. Brooke-Little shows the disputed stags of Thomas Rotherham on the sinister side as statant, which must be considered a rare error when presented with the evidence from 1574 and the portrait.

Similarity to Jesus College Arms. Lincoln and Jesus are neighbors on Turl Street ("the Turl"), of which the joke is often told: "Q. How is the Church of England like Turl Street?" "A. It runs from the High to the Broad and it has Jesus." An American tourist is said to have entered Lincoln College after the Civil War and asked the porter: "Say, is this Jesus?" To which the porter replied: "You aren't the first person, sir, to confuse Lincoln with Jesus." The Jesus College arms are blazoned Vert three stags trippant argent attired or, which is the same as, or close to, the sinister section of the Lincoln arms. The earliest depiction of the Jesus arms was thought to be about 1590, in a document held by the College of Arms, referring to the stags as having a blue (azure) field, but Peter Donoghue, Bluemantle Pursuivant, reports the arms were more likely added 90 years later, on John Speed’s 1605 Map of Oxfordshire, with a blue field. The green field first appeared in 1619 in an armorial quarry painted by one of the Van Linge brothers, and was generally used by 1730, although horizontal hatchings (indicating azure) were still used on college bookplates as late as 1761. It has been claimed that Jesus stole the three stags from Lincoln, but the counter-argument is that the origins of each are distinct. Lincoln Rector Paul Langford has suggested that Jesus College continued the arms adopted by a theological college founded by Rotherham in his home town – Jesus College, Rotherham – which had been suppressed in the time of Edward VI. Another theory is that the stags derive from the arms of Maud Green, Lady Parr, mother of Catherine Parr, last of the six wives of Henry VIII and stepmother to Elizabeth I. The most likely story is that the arms of the College are those of Bishop Rotherham, and John Speed saw them on Lawrence Hall in Ship Street, given to Rotherham in 1476 and leased to Jesus College in 1572. Speed probably assumed the arms to be those of the College when drawing his map in 1605. The Jesus arms could not be confused with those of Lincoln College, because as of 1574 Lincoln's tripartite shield was confirmed by Portcullis Pursuivant.

Acknowledgments

Nelson Ong, alumnus of Lincoln College; Prof. Henry Woudhuysen, Rector; and Windsor Herald, May 2017.

References

Brooke-Little,  John P., “The Arms of Oxford University and its Colleges,” Coat of Arms, No. 5, 6 & 7, January-July 1951.

Clark, Andrew, Heraldry of Oxford Colleges," Archaeologica Oxoniensis, II, April 1895, pp. 333-336.

Landon, Perceval, "Notes on the Heraldry of the Oxford Colleges," Archaeologica Oxoniensis, III and IV (July and Oct 1893), esp. pp. 143, 156, 199, 206.

Lincoln College, Website, https://www.lincoln.ox.ac.uk/The-College-Arms.

Warner, Stephen A., Lincoln College Oxford (London: Sidgwick & Jackson Ltd., 1908), pp. 38, 38A. Free Google Books edition http://bit.ly/2pj3UF8. Warner consulted the Bodleian, the British Museum library, and the libraries of Queen's College, Oxford and Caius and Sidney Sussex Colleges at Cambridge.

Wikipedia entry on Jesus College, section on Coat of Arms.

Related Links

Punting at Oxford . History of Thames Rowing .  Head of the Charles (Harvard) . Boat Club Blazers . Coats of Arms of Oxford Colleges . Arms as Brands . The Joy of Heraldry .  Coat of Arms vs. Crest . Sinister Questions . Visit to the College of Arms . Windsor Herald in NYC . Shaming of Harvard Law Arms . The Expansion of Oxford's Colleges . Oxford Stars . Heraldry Superlink . Harris Manchester College . Linacre College . St Catherine's . St Cross College . St Edmund Hall . St Peter's College . Trinity College . Regent's Park College . St Benet's Hall